Facets and Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Adaptation - Refining The Tools
The management literature on cross-cultural adaptation has used a conceptualisation and measurement approach developed by Black and Stephens. Their work has led to significant development in the field. Now it is time to move beyond and use a more refined tool. This paper proposes such a tool and compares its characteristics with those of the older instrument. The paper is based on a sample of 204 expatriates, who were surveyed using the older and the proposed instrument. It uses confirmatory factor analysis to compare the two instruments. Independent variables include cultural difference and language skills. This study demonstrates that a more refined measurement of adaptation outcomes, which distinguishes cognitive and affective factors and four non-work facets, is superior to measurement based on the older instrument. The new scale also provides a case for the improvement of cross-cultural adaptation theory. The paper is based on a cross-sectional sample, and sample size is relatively small for confirmatory factor analysis. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the evidence presented here about the superiority of the proposed measure. The paper provides researchers with a new tool for use in cross-cultural adaptation studies and describes a new, empirically developed measurement tool for cross-cultural adaptation.
Haslberger, A. (2005) Facets and Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Adaptation - Refining The Tools, Personnel Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, January, pp 85-109.