Kurt April

Professor of Leadership, Diversity & Inclusion at the Graduate School of Business of the University of Cape Town BSc, MEng, MBA, PhD

Kurt is a Research Fellow at Ashridge, a Sainsbury Fellow, Fellow of the Royal Society for Arts, Culture & Manufactures (RSA, UK), and a tenured Professor of Leadership, Diversity & Inclusion at the Graduate School of Business of the University of Cape Town (South Africa), Associate Fellow of Saïd Business School (University of Oxford, UK), Faculty Member of Duke Corporate Education (Duke University, USA) and a regular Visiting Professor at Erasmus Rotterdam School of Management (The Netherlands).

Outside of academia, Kurt is Managing Partner of LICM Consulting (South Africa), Owner-Director of Helderview BMW (South Africa), Non-Executive Director of Achievement Awards Group (South Africa), Member of the International Advisory Council to Novartis International (Switzerland), Member of the Special Agenda Council on Talent & Diversity of the World Economic Forum (Switzerland), Board Member of Cornerstone Institute (South Africa), and Head of an International D&I Advisory Faculty of the National Health Service (NHS, UK).

Kurt is an Advisory Board Member of the Knowledge Management Professional Society (USA), Editorial Advisory Board Member of the Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review (China), Editorial Board Member of Annual Review of High Performance Coaching & Consulting (UK), Editorial Board Member of the Journal of Management Education (USA), Editorial Board Member of the International Journal of Information Systems & Social Change (USA), and Editorial Board Member of the South African Journal of Business Management (South Africa).

Member of the Advisory Board of Axius Publishing (Pty) Ltd. (South Africa , as of 2003) Member of the Academy of Management (USA – as of 2000). Member of the Black Management Forum of South Africa (Cape Town, as of 2002). Member of the SA National Editors Forum (South Africa – as of 2003). Member of the International Sainsbury Fellows Association (as of 2002). Member of NBDPA IT Thought Leaders (Chicago Chapter, USA – as of 1998). MOLN: Midwestern Organizational Learning Network (Batavia, Illinois, USA – as of 1998) IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (New York, USA – as of 1995). SAIEE: South African Institute of Electrical Engineers (South Africa – 1995 to 2000).

Kurt April

Publications

Does the ongoing global economic crisis put diversity gains at risk? Diversity management during hard times: International examples from the USA, South Africa and Greece

Vassilopoulou, J., Da Rocha, J. P., April, K., Kyriakidou, O., & Özbilgin, M. (2016). Does the ongoing global economic crisis put diversity gains at risk? Diversity management during hard times: International examples from the USA, South Africa and Greece. In Prescott, J. (ed.), Handbook of research on race, gender, and the fight for equality (pp. 424-452). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Individual emotive outlook profiles

Swart-Opperman, C. & April, K. (2015) Individual emotive outlook profiles: Successful and unsuccessful innovative Namibian teams. Effective Executive 18(3), 31-61

Values: Self-reports of lived congruency

Phiri, S., & April, K. (2014) . Values: Self-reports of lived congruency. Effective Executive, 17(2), 20-39

Self-initiated expatriation: Case study lessons from Africa and the United States.

Tatli, A., Berry, D., Ipek, G., & April, K. (2014) . Self-initiated expatriation: Case study lessons from Africa and the United States. In M. Özbilgin, D. Groutsis, & W. Harvey (eds.), International human resource management (pp. 214-235). Victoria, Australia: Cambridge University Press.

The relationship between demographic groups and perception of inclusion  in a South African organisation

Daya, P., & April, K. (2014) The relationship between demographic groups and perception of inclusion in a South African organisation. The South African Journal of Business Management, 45(2), 25-34

Understanding spirituality at work, organizations and in management

Makgoba, T., April, K., & Al Ariss, A. (2014) . Understanding spirituality at work, organizations and in management. Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review, 10(2), 41-52

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Tackling whiteness in organizations and management

Al Ariss, A., Őzbilgin, M., Tatli, A. & April, K. (2014) . Tackling whiteness in organizations and management. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(4), 362-369.

The power of self-love in the evolution of leadership and employee engagement

Maharaj, N., & April, K. (2013) . The power of self-love in the evolution of leadership and employee engagement. Problems and Perspectives in Management,11(4), 120-132

Compassion in organizations: Cause for concern or distress

Train, K., & April, K. (2013) Compassion in organizations: Cause for concern or distress. Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review9(3), 25-41.

Connected but not alike: Cross-cultural comparison of Generation Y in China and South Africa

Lynton, N. & April, K. (2012) Connected but not alike: Cross-cultural comparison of Generation Y in China and South Africa, Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 67 - 80 ISSN: 1813-0534

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Impact of Locus of Control Expectancy on Level of Well-Being

April, K., Dharani, B., & Peters, B.K.G. (2012) Impact of Locus of Control Expectancy on Level of Well-Being, Review of European Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 124 - 137

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Locus of control and subjective well-being: A cross-cultural study in China and Southern Africa

Stocks, A., April, K.A. & Lynton, N. (2012) Locus of control and subjective well-being: A cross-cultural study in China and Southern Africa, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 17 - 25

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Leadership through social action

April, K. (2012) Leadership through social action, YPO/WPO MBA in a Day Booklet, pp. 4 - 6, 27 January

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Sustainability & authentic leadership: Stumbling blocks and enablers

Lombard, L., April, K., & Peters, K. (2012) . Sustainability & authentic leadership: Stumbling blocks and enablers. Crown Research in Education, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 74 - 84 ISSN 2276-7436

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Emotional intelligence of elite sports leaders & elite business leaders

April, K., Lifson, D. & Noakes, T. (2012) Emotional intelligence of elite sports leaders & elite business leaders, International Journal of Business and Commerce, 1 (5), 82 - 115

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Diversity management in South Africa: inclusion, identity, intention, power and expectations

April, K., Ephraim, N., & Peters, B.K.G (2012) Diversity management in South Africa: Inclusion, identity, intention, power and expectations. African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 6(4), pp. 1749 - 1759

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Communal versus individual modalities of work

April, K., and Peters, B.K.G., (2012) Communal versus individual modalities of work: A South African investigation, in Littrell, R., ed. Leadership & Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa, Vol 2 & 3., accepted for publication

Intergroup Behaviour: South African Generation Y

April, K, Loubser, J and Peters, B.K.G., (2012) Intergroup Behaviour: South African Generation Y., Effective Executive, Hyderabad: ICFAI University Press, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 8 - 40, ISSN: 0972-5172

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Achieving authentic, sustainable leadership

Lombard, L., April, K. & Peters, B.K.G. (2011) Achieving authentic, sustainable leadership, Ashridge International Research Conference II, June

What makes us choose to act ethically?

April, K. (2011) What makes us choose to act ethically?, Breakwater Business, Vol. 12, Issue 1, pp. 44 - 45

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Communal versus individual modalities of work: A South African investigation

April, K. & Peters, B.K.G. (2011) Communal versus individual modalities of work: A South African investigation, Asia Pacific Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 5 - 36

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Leader Career Success & Locus of Control Expectancy

April, K., Dharani, B. & Peters, B.K.G. (2011) Leader Career Success & Locus of Control Expectancy, Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 28 - 40

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Leading Ethically: What Helps and What Hinders

April, K., Peters, B.K.G., Locke, K. & Mlambo, C. (2011) Leading Ethically: What Helps and What Hinders, in C. Millar & E. Poole (Eds.) Ethical Leadership: Global Challenges and Perspectives, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 165 - 186

Leadership Capabilities, Management Selection – Game Theoretic Modelling

April, K. & Peters, B.K.G. (2010) Leadership Capabilities, Management Selection – Game Theoretic Modelling, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Vol. 8, Issue 4 , pp. 207 - 218

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Less can really be more if you have soft power

April, K. (2010) Less can really be more if you have soft power, Sunday Independent, 3 October, p. 17

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South African Leadership Work-Modes – An Empirical Workplace Investigation

April, K., and Peters, B.K.G. (2010) South African Leadership Work-Modes – An Empirical Workplace Investigation, Leadership and Management Studies in Sub Saharan Africa Conference, Cape Town, November

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Measuring Diversity Practice and Developing Inclusion

April, K. & Blass, E. (2010) Measuring Diversity Practice and Developing Inclusion, Dimensions, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 59 - 66

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Dealing with Guilt and Shame after Breaking the Glass Ceiling: The Case of South African Executive Women

April, K. & Mooketsi, B. (2010) Dealing with Guilt and Shame after Breaking the Glass Ceiling: The Case of South African Executive Women, Effective Executive, Vol. 13, No. 8, pp. 68 - 86

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Ethics and Leadership: Enablers and Stumbling Blocks

April, K., Peters, B.K.G., Locke, K., & Mlambo, C., (2010) Ethics and Leadership: Enablers and Stumbling Blocks, Journal of Public Affairs, Vol.10, No.3, pp. 152 - 172, published online 25 May

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Leadership Competence & Identity: The Role of Formative, Situated Experiences

April, K., Vermeulen, P. & Blass, E. (2010) Leadership Competence & Identity: The Role of Formative, Situated Experiences, Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 50 - 67

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Ethical Leadership Required to Lead a Diverse New Europe

April, K. & Blass, E. (2010) Ethical Leadership Required to Lead a Diverse New Europe, in W. Matiaske, S. Costa, & H. Brunkhorst (Eds.) Contemporary Perspectives on Justice, München, Mering: Rainer Hampp Verlag, pp. 183 - 201

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Four Step Process to Implement African Leadership: An Empirical Evaluation

April, K. & Ephraim, N. (2010) Four Step Process to Implement African Leadership: An Empirical Evaluation, Effective Executive, Vol.13, No. 1, pp. 42 - 57

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Stewardship as Leadership: An Empirical Investigation

April, K., Peters, B.K.G., and Allison, C.N., (2010) Stewardship as Leadership: An Empirical Investigation, Effective Executive, Hyderabad: ICFAI University Press, Vol. XIII, No. 2, pp. 52 - 69

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Diverse Discretionary Effort in Workplace Networks: Serving Self Over Community in China

April, K. & Smit, E. (2010) Diverse Discretionary Effort in Workplace Networks: Serving Self Over Community in China, in Ozbilgin, M.F. & Syed, J. (Eds.) , Diversity Management in Asia, Edward Elgar, pp. 73 - 109

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Temporality in Link Prediction: Understanding Social Complexity

Potgieter, A., April, K., Cooke, R.J.E. & Osunmakinde, I.O. (2009) Temporality in Link Prediction: Understanding Social Complexity, E:CO, The Complexity Society, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 69 - 83

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Ethical Leadership required to lead Europe beyond Instrumental Rationality

April, K., April, A. & Blass, E. (2009) Ethical Leadership required to lead Europe beyond Instrumental Rationality, Academy of Taiwan Business Management Review, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 1 - 15

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Applying Bayesian Modelling to Assess Climate Change Effects on Biofuel Production

Peter, C., de Lange, W., Musango, J.K., April, K. & Potgieter, A. (2009) Applying Bayesian Modelling to Assess Climate Change Effects on Biofuel Production, Climate Research, Vol. 40, pp. 249 - 260

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Reactions To Discrimination: Exclusive Identity of Foreign Workers in South Africa

April, K. & April, A. (2009) Reactions To Discrimination: Exclusive Identity of Foreign Workers in South Africa, in Ozbilgin, M. F. (ed.) , Equality, Diversity and Inclusion at Work: A Research Companion, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, pp. 216 - 228

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Dimensions of Choice

April, K. (2009) Dimensions of Choice, Destiny, January/February edition, pp. 82 - 85

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Critical Effort and Leadership in Specialised Virtual Networks

April, K., Katoma, V. and Peters, B.K.G. (2009) Critical Effort and Leadership in Specialised Virtual Networks, Annual Review for High Performance Coaching and Consulting, pp. 187 - 215

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IT and Social Complexity – Complementary Resource Combinations in the South African Assurance Industry

April, K., Shockley, M. & Peters, B.K.G. (2009) IT and Social Complexity - Complementary Resource Combinations in the South African Assurance Industry, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Vol. 7 (1), pp. 75 - 88

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Recommendations on Creating and managing Inclusive Workforces

April, K. et al. (2009) Recommendations on Creating and Managing Inclusive Workforces, World Economic Forum: Special Global Agenda Council on Talent and Diversity, pp. 1 - 26, October

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Discretionary Effort: 'Can we really account for performance surge?'

April, K. & Katoma, V. (2008) Discretionary Effort: 'Can we really account for performance surge?', KMPRO Journal (Knowledge Modeling), Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 14 - 31

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Work Should Be About Sharing Your Talents

April, K. (2008) Work Should Be About Sharing Your Talents, Business Day, October edition, p. 2

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Global Talent Warfare: Line Managers are still the Determinant

April, K. & Jappie A. (2008) Global Talent Warfare: Line Managers are still the Determinant, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 40 - 43

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Developing Talent for Tomorrow

Blass, E. & April, K. (2008) Developing Talent for Tomorrow, Develop, No. 1, pp. 48 - 58

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Exclusive workplace systems

With more and more organisations across the globe facing the challenge of diversity management, Kurt April, Amanda April and Vibha Sharma look at the negative effects on employees who experience discrimination and exclusion in the workplace.

April, K., April, A. & Sharma, V. (2008) Exclusive workplace systems, 360° The Ashridge Journal, Spring, pp. 22 - 27

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Gender Impediments to the South African Executive Boardroom

April, K., Dreyer, S. & Blass, E. (2007) Gender Impediments to the South African Executive Boardroom, South African Journal of Labour Relations, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 51 - 67

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First National Bank: Inspirational Leadership in a South African Context

Hargater, A. & April, K. (2007) First National Bank: Inspirational Leadership in a South African Context, Presented to The Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, December

Gender Unplugged in the Executive Boardroom

The research set out to understand why, despite the fact that the laws have changed and access to equal opportunities are available, there are not more women holding executive positions in corporate South Africa. The representation of women in Parliament, and the public sector, in general, is an indicator of a significant paradigm shift over the last decade – however, there is little to no evidence of the same level of commitment and real change in the corporate sector at the highest levels. Our qualitative research sheds light on the challenges facing women in executive positions, and expands the empowerment and sacrifice dialogue.

April, K. & Dreyer, S. (2007) Gender Unplugged in the Executive Boardroom, Effective Executive, published by ICFAI University Press

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Temporality in Link Prediction: Understanding Social Complexity - 2007

This article summarises experimental results that bring together two views in contemporary science: Bayesian analysis and link prediction, to enhance the current understanding of social network analysis (SNA), particularly in value creation through social connectedness – an important, and growing, discipline within management science.

Potgieter, A., April, K.A., Cooke, R.J.E., Osunmakinde, I.O. (2007) Temporality in Link Prediction: Understanding Social Complexity, Working Paper

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Growing Leaders in Emergent Markets: Leadership Enhancement in the New South Africa

South Africa has unique challenges. Thirteen years since becoming democratic, it is still going through its own unprecedented change in joining the global economic network and moving from Apartheid to democracy and from a closed to an open community. These political and sociological changes have also infiltrated business and therefore management education in South Africa, bringing demand for new approaches. At the Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, the authors adapted their traditional MBA teaching approaches to become more creative. This article summarizes the main themes within a core MBA course that have been guided by their new learning design, growth-stages methodology, a multipronged plan for moving management and leadership students through the growth stages by using ideas from systems thinking, scenario planning, coaching and mentoring, and organizational learning. These Western constructs are being complemented by African knowledge, which the authors are slowly developing and integrating into the traditional business school curricula.

April, K. & April, A. (2007) Growing Leaders in Emergent Markets: Leadership Enhancement in the New South Africa, Journal of Management Education (USA), Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 214 - 244

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In search of ethics: probing the firm-society interface

A series of corporate corruption scandals recently, amongst large, respected global organisations, has led to a questioning of the firm-societal interface. Perhaps most intriguing is the fact that these fraudulent acts were consciously committed by otherwise venerable members of the community. Their persistance in pursuing their corrupt paths suggests that they had found a way to rationalise and socialise their behaviour over time, even though it is unlikely that they would find such behaviour acceptable outside of the workplace.

April, K. & Wilson, A. (2007) In search of ethics: probing the firm-society interface, Convergence, Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring, pp. 16 - 19

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Diversity in Africa: The Coming of Age of a Continent

Africa is a unique Continent and the solutions to its multifaceted problems and challenges are only going to come from its own soil. Through a collection of papers from authors, who are pre-eminent voices in the diversity discipline in Africa, the book explores notions of cross-vengeance and hybridisation of the Continent’s sense-making processes and activities – examining the personal, organisation and social dimensions. The authors believe a unifying force can be drawn from its colonial past, through which Africa can subordinate its individual goals in favour of the common good, so that all in the region may benefit. Filled with powerful stories, new perspectives for thinking, best practice, researched academic frameworks and learning emanating from the continent itself, the reader will be challenged to rethink and reflect on dominant worldviews and its deficiencies. The book represents a suitable core reader for MBA, undergraduate and post-graduate programmes that seek to relate business-government-society and the responsibility of individuals towards creating desired futures, as well as a text to support employee learning development initiatives sponsored by corporations or public sector groups.

April, K. & Shockley, M. (2007) Diversity in Africa: The Coming of Age of a Continent, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230006843

Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World

This collection of essays and papers from various authors offers unique perspectives into multi-dimensional diversity beyond the parameters of gender, ethnicity and physical ability. The book provides an insight in to the personal challenges as well as those involved in shaping approaches to diversity at the country, public sector, company and civil society levels around the world. A consistent reality shared among many of the authors show ‘leading’ rather than ‘managing’ diversity is much more critical in countries and institutions experiencing transformation. The various facets of diversity are presented through six reality themes: Ways of looking at reality, expanding reality, embedding reality, creating reality, preparing for new realities and realising realities. The reader will be challenged by all the authors in the book as it encourages the reader towards intentioned action.

April, K. & Shockley, M. (2007) Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 9780230001336

Stewardship: New Modalities for Leadership

April, K. (2007) Stewardship: New Modalities for Leadership, Second International Leadership Conference, Ashridge Business School, 30 July - 1 August

Responsible Leadership Ethics

April, K. & April, A. (2007) Responsible Leadership Ethics, in K. April & M. Shockley (Eds.), Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World, pp. 276 - 293, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke

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Diversity and Good Governance

Governance is generally viewed in shareholder terms and is defined by the rights and responsibilities of directors, as well as by a compliance view of the audit function. By looking at the development of governance frameworks in the UK, US, Canada, India and South Africa it becomes apparent that a broader view of governance which takes a stakeholder view has broad implications.

Peters, B.K.G., April, K.A., Shockley, M.L. & Dhamija, V. (2007) Diversity and Good Governance, in April, K.A. & Shockley, M.L. (eds) Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World, pp. 196 - 213, London: Palgrave Macmillan

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Strategies for Information Technology and Intellectual Capital: Challenges and Opportunities

April, K. (2006) Strategies for Information Technology and Intellectual Capital: Challenges and Opportunities, IDEA-Group,USA, Joia, A., April.

Strategy & Innovation using Competitive Intelligence: A Critical Lens

April, K. (2006) Strategy & Innovation using Competitive Intelligence: A Critical Lens, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Issue 2

Leading Diversity - An Ethical Responsibility

In a changing Europe, diversity is an ethical issue, for which leaders have a clear responsibility. In this article Kurt and Amanda April contrast the attitudes towards diversity of Western European and newer EU countries, and challenge traditional tendencies to define and categorise diversity.

April, K. & April, A. (2006) Leading Diversity - An Ethical Responsibility, Management Review, under review at Equal Opportunities International

Crafting Identity Through Diverse Socialisation: Personal Stories

April, K., April, A. & Shockley, M. (2006) Crafting Identity Through Diverse Socialisation: Personal Stories, South Africa: Kenwyn, Forthcoming

Cave Canem! The Art (Or Science?) of Western Management in an African Context

Theimann, N. & April, K. (2006) Cave Canem! The Art (Or Science?) of Western Management in an African Context, in K.April & M. Shockley (Eds.), Diversity in Aftica: The Coming of Age of a Continent, pp. 10 - 34, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire

Consequences of New Realities

April, K. (2006) Consequences of New Realities, in K. April & M. Shockley (Eds.), Diversity: New Realities in a Changing World, pp. 357 - 371, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire

Individual Control: Implications for Business Managers

April, K. (2006) Individual Control: Implications for Business Managers, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 7, No.1, pp. 1 - 4

The Strategic Role of Diversity Management

April, K. (2006) The Strategic Role of Diversity Management, SABMiller Annual Human Resource Conference, 15 - 18 July, Sun CIty, South Africa

The Integrating Catalytic Enablement of Knowledge for Competitive Advantage: Empirical Evidence

April, K. (2006) The Integrating Catalytic Enablement of Knowledge for Competitive Advantage: Empirical Evidence, a chapter in IDEA Publishing Group, Knowledge Management and Business Strategies: Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Research, USA

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Leadership Enhancement: A Growth-Stages Methodology

April, K. & April, A. (2006) Leadership Enhancement: A Growth-Stages Methodology, Journal of Management Education

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A Critique of the Strategic Competitive Intelligence Process within a Global Energy Multinational

April, K. & Bessa, J. (2006) A Critique of the Strategic Competitive Intelligence Process within a Global Energy Multinational, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 86 - 99

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Implementing African Leadership: An Empirical Basis to Move Beyond Theory

This paper details the process of establishing a method for the implementation of African modes of leadership within an organisation. African leadership precepts are defined, followed by a brief explanation of the methodology for the research.A survey questionnaire with 20 constructs relating to African modes of leadership was designed. This was used as an on-line survey to illicit electronic feedback from individuals within a specific organisation.Rigorous statistical analysis, including means and grand-means analysis, ANOVA, correlations, factor analysis and chi-squared tests were performed on the data. The factor analysis reduced the 20 constructs in the survey to 4 constructs. These constructs are proposed as a four-step process to implement African modes of leadership within the organisation, and help integrate it/interweave it into the already dominant, functional parts of our historical Anglo-Saxon leadership modes. Key to the success of the programme are congruent intentions and behaviours, as well as genuine stewardship for the sustainability of both organisations and communities, which we believe will, in turn, permit the unlocking, embracing and application of the multiplicative effects of cross-verging African modes of leadership with our current, dominant modalities. An inability to do so is, in our view, a moral failure of behalf of South African organisations, and their leaders in particular.

April, K. (2006) Implementing African Leadership: An Empirical Basis to Move Beyond Theory, 1st International Conference on Values-Based Leadership, Stellenbosch University, March

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Social Complexity - An Integrating Catalyst For Complementary Resource Combinations in the South African Assurance Industry

April, K. & Shockley, M. (2006) Social Complexity - An Integrating Catalyst For Complementary Resource Combinations in the South African Assurance Industry, in L.A. Joia (ed.) Strategies for Information Technology and Intellectual Capital: Challenges and Opportunities, Herchey, PA: Idea Group, April

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Adaptive Bayesian Agents

This article brings together two views of organisations: resource-based theories (RBT) and social network analysis (SNA). Resource-based theories stress the importance of tangible assets, as well as less tangible ones, in the competitive advantage and success of organisations. However, they provide little insight into how resources are brought together by an organisation to generate core competencies that provide a source of differentiation that cannot easily be reproduced or substituted. In contrast SNA provides insight into the complexity of organisations and the interaction between the people within them, taking account of uncertainty and complexity. However, neither perspective gives significant insight into how organisations evolve over time, and how their competitive position is sustained or eroded.

Potgeiter, A., April, K., Cooke, R.J.E. & Lockett, M. (2006) Adaptive Bayesian Agents, South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 41 - 55

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Strategic Competitive Intelligence - A Critique

April, K. (2006) Strategic Competitive Intelligence - A Critique, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Working Paper, pp. 86 - 99

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Context Tension: Cultural Influences on Leadership and Management Practice

The canon of knowledge within the fields of management and leadership theory and practice has been developed and espoused from Western capitalist principles, with leading thinkers in the field being mainly of American of European dissent. These ideas have then been 'exported' beyond Western boundaries as trade has moved from being multinational, through international to global, and practices such as international outsourcing have become more widespread. While some areas of Asia, particularly India, may be both responsive and adaptive to some of these Western practices, other areas of Asia and Africa as a whole are not so. This paper offers a contextual understanding and comparison of leadership and management practices in Western and African contexts to provide some explanation as to why such practice needs to be adapted if it is to be successful outside of the Western context in which it was conceived.

Mendelek-Theimann, N., April, K. & Blass, E. (2006) Context Tension: Cultural Influences on Leadership and Management Practice, Reflections, The Society for Organizational Learning Journal (SOL) , USA , Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 38 - 51

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The Global Future of the MBA

There is no end in sight to the growth of the MBA market as waves of new programmes are launched throughout the world. In the first phase of expansion, the MBA proliferated in the US. Later on, Europe and Africa followed, with Asia and Latin America catching up quickly.

Peters, B.K.G. & April, K. (2006) The Global Future of the MBA, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 16 - 19

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Growth Through Unlearning

In recent years learning has played a central role in organisational development. In this article we want to look at the role of its shadow field, unlearning, could play in the development of healthy organisations. We also give two very different approaches of dealing with unlearning.

April, K., April, A. & Wabbels, H. (2006) Growth Through Unlearning, Develop, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 78 - 81

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Diversity Management in South Africa: Where Should The Focus Really Be?

Today’s modern organisations have no choice but to face choices regarding how to implement diversity initiatives and treat their stakeholders, given the globalized nature of capital markets. Unfortunately, their foci appear to be narrowly deployed at the managing diversity level, or even the acknowledging diversity level, but not getting to the necessary inclusion level. This paper reports on an in-depth study which focused beyond multiculturalism to include psychological issues of diversity relating to identity, intention, expectations, and inclusion. The study sought to investigate this premise through insights gained from the analysis of personal stories relating to individual experiences of diversity, and the outcomes provide new and deeper insights for the design, implementation and success of diversity initiatives.

April, K., Ephraim, N., Blass, E. (2006) Diversity Management in South Africa: Where Should The Focus Really Be?, Ethnic and Racial Studies. Submitted

Connecting the Unconnected: Diversity & Inclusion

April, K. (2006) Connecting the Unconnected: Diversity & Inclusion, Geert Groote Instituut Anniversary, Zwolle, The Netherlands, 21 November

Leadership Trends in Healthcare: Where To From Here for the NHS?

April, K. (2006) Leadership Trends in Healthcare: Where To From Here for the NHS?, Scottish NHS, Edinburgh, November

Stewardship: Technology's Role in Shaping Our Diverse Future

April, K. (2005) Stewardship: Technology's Role in Shaping Our Diverse Future, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 114 - 117

Diversity Management in Emerging Economies: In Search of a New Approach to Humanism

April. K, (2005) Diversity Management in Emerging Economies: In Search of a New Approach to Humanism, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1 - 4

Toimetulek Mitmekesisusega: Paluks Uutmoodi Lähenemist

April, K. (2007) Toimetulek Mitmekesisusega: Paluks Uutmoodi Lähenemist, Director, June, No. 6, pp. 52 - 55

Shifting the Meaning of Diversity as Reality

April, K., Maes, R. & Shockley, M. (2005) Shifting the Meaning of Diversity as Reality, Boston: USA Publisher, Forthcoming

Using Bayesian Agents to Enable Distributed Network Knowledge: A Critique

April, K., Potgieter, A. & Cooke, R. (2005) Using Bayesian Agents to Enable Distributed Network Knowledge: A Critique, 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, University of Cambridge, 4th - 6th July

Social Complexity – An Integrating Catalyst for Complementary Resource Combinations in the South African Assurance Industry - 2005

April, K. & Shockley, M. (2005) Social Complexity – An Integrating Catalyst for Complementary Resource Combinations in the South African Assurance Industry, 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, University of Cambridge, 4th - 6th July

Diversity Management in The Baltics: A New Approach Please

April, K. (2005) Diversity Management in The Baltics: A New Approach Please, Baltic Management Development Association Annual Conference, Tallinn, Estonia, 5th - 6th May

The Impact of Societal, Economic, Technological and Political Pressures on Business Opportunities in South Africa

April, K. (2005) The Impact of Societal, Economic, Technological and Political Pressures on Business Opportunities in South Africa, de Baak Institute, Cape Town, 3rd March

Bringing the soul back into organisational life

In this summarised version of an article written for Expatica by Kurt April, Professor of Leadership at the University of Cape Town,  April explains why we tend to shy away from expressing feelings at work, suggesting that we have traded uniqueness for control. April believes that we have got to reconnect with "who we are as human beings and our unique capacities to realise our full creative potential." Embracing this philosophy, says April, "requires a different way of looking at people, problems, the economy, and the world.  It encourages slowly facing painful problems and uncertainty instead of scrambling for rapid solutions.

April, K. (2005) Bringing the soul back into organisational life, Expatica HR website, www.expatica.com

Leadership Competence: A Socially Networked Process

This paper proposes that highly accomplished business leaders encounter specific ‘formative events’ throughout their career that play a central role in the development of their social identities, and their capacities to deal with change. It also explores the conceptual roots of the concepts of ‘Groundedness’ and ‘adaptability’ and shows that the life-stories of highly accomplished business leaders attest to them.

April, K., Vermeulen, P. & Lherhitte, G. (2005) Leadership Competence: A Socially Networked Process, 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, Judge Institute of Management at Cambridge University, 4th - 6th July

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Knowledge Sharing and Distribution

April, K. (2005) Knowledge Sharing and Distribution, Global Knowledge Review, pp. 8 - 12

Competitive Intelligence Practices at Shell Exploration & Production

April, K. & Bessa, J. (2005) Competitive Intelligence Practices at Shell Exploration & Production, in E. Eckard (ed.) Inspiration & Innovation through Knowledge, Dubai: tFactory Edition, Think Factory FZ LLC.

Complex Adaptive Enterprises

Potgieter, A., April, K. & Bishop, J. (2005) Complex Adaptive Enterprises, in M. Khosrow-Pour (ed.) Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 1, Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc., pp. 475 - 480

Implementing Enterprise-Wide Initiatives: IT & HRM

Cunningham, P., April, K. & Shockley, M. (2005) Implementing Enterprise-Wide Initiatives: IT & HRM, South African Journal of Business Management, Forthcoming

Knowledge Management – What Education Can Learn From Corporate Memory Systems

Berman, S., Potgieter, A., April, K., Azbel, I., Kunene, P. & Rouse, C. (2005) Knowledge Management – What Education Can Learn From Corporate Memory Systems, Alternation, Forthcoming

Knowledge Management Praxis: A Public Sector Perspective

April, K. & Ahmadi Izadi, F. (2004) Knowledge Management Praxis: A Public Sector Perspective, Kenwyn, Cape Town, Juta Academic Publishers

Performance Through Learning: Knowledge Management in Practice

Gorelick, C., Milton, N. & April, K. (2004) Performance Through Learning: Knowledge Management in Practice, Burlington, MA, Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann

The Strategic Role on HR in a Global Environment

April, K. (2004) The Strategic Role on HR in a Global Environment, SABMiller Annual Human Resource Conference, Sun City, 15 - 18 July

A Roadmap to Achieving Strategic Objectives

April, K. & Koegelenberg, R. (2004) A Roadmap to Achieving Strategic Objectives, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 5, No. 4, October, pp. 56 - 59

The digital leapfrog: monitoring and evaluation and performance management as an improvement tool in business and government

April, K., Fourman, M. & McCrea, J. (2004) The Digital Leapfrog: Monitoring and Evaluation and Performance Management as an Improvement Tool in Business and Government, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 5, No. 2, March, pp. 20 - 24

BP case study: KM team structuration and sense-making (Part II)

Gorelick, C. & April, K. (2004) BP case study: KM team structuration and sense-making (Part II), South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, June, pp.15 - 24

BP case study: KM team structuration and sense-making (Part I)

Gorelick, C. & April, K. (2004) BP case study: KM team structuration and sense-making (Part I), South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 35, No. 1, March, pp. 1 - 16

A Resource Based View of the Firm: Integrating the Role of IT as a Strategic Resource

April, K. (2004) A Resource Based View of the Firm: Integrating the Role of IT as a Strategic Resource (An Empirical Study of the South African Personal Financial Services - Assurance Firms 1999-2003), Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, pp. 1 - 505

How Ready Is Your Organisation for KM

April, K. & Shockley, M. (2004) How Ready Is Your Organisation for KM, Global Knowledge Review, September, pp. 10 - 12

Stewardship & Responsible Leadership: Technology's Role

April, K. (2004) Stewardship & Responsible Leadership: Technology's Role, Annual VIAG Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 7 -8 November, pp. 1 - 7

Guidelines for Developing a Knowledge Management Strategy

April, K. (2003) Guidelines for Developing a Knowledge Management Strategy, Excellante Conference, Sandton, South Aftica, 12 February, pp. 1 - 20

A Resource-Based Framework for Developing KM Strategies

April, K. (2003) A Resource-Based Framework for Developing KM Strategies, Excellante International, Knowledge Management Conference, Cape Town, 17 - 18 March

Leveraging Diversity: Weaving Strong Fabrics from Different Threads

April, K. (2003) Leveraging Diversity: Weaving Strong Fabrics from Different Threads, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 54 - 55

Developing a Basis for Knowledge Management: A Bayesian Networks Approach

Brown, H., Kunene, P., Rouse, C., April, K., Berman, S. & Potgieter, A. (2003) Developing a Basis for Knowledge Management: A Bayesian Networks Approach, Technical Report CS03-14-00, Computer Science Department, University of Cape Town.

Good Corporate Governance: Building Stakeholder Trust

Shockley, M. & April, K. (2003) Good Corporate Governance: Building Stakeholder Trust, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 26 - 30

IC Measurement and Reporting: Establishing a Practice in SA Mining

April, K., Bosma, P. & Deglon, D. (2003) IC Measurement and Reporting: Establishing a Practice in SA Mining, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 165 - 180

Competitive Advantage: It Takes Knowledge To Sustain The Edge

April, K. (2002) Competitive Advantage: It Takes Knowledge To Sustain The Edge, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 3, No. 3, October, pp. 50 - 56

Guidelines for Developing a K-Strategy

April, K. (2002) Guidelines for Developing a K-Strategy, Journal for Knowledge Management, Vol. 6, No. 5, November, pp. 445 - 456

A Technological Landscape: Global and Local Challenges & Opportunities

April, K. (2002) A Technological Landscape: Global and Local Challenges & Opportunities; Microsoft (Southern Hemisphere): 2nd Microsoft Partners Conference, Newlands, 21 November

The Global Strategic Challenges for a Local Giant

April, K. (2002) The Global Strategic Challenges for a Local Giant, National Brands Limited Annual Conference, Drakensberg, 18 - 19 August

Diversity for Sustainability

April, K. (2002) Diversity for Sustainability, SABMiller Annual Marketing Conference, Sun City, 15 - 17 May

Linking Corporate Performance Management to an Action-Driven Balanced Scorecard

April, K. & Kruger, C. (2002) Linking Corporate Performance Management to an Action-Driven Balanced Scorecard, Treasury Management from Within, Excellante International, Cape Town, 27 - 28 November

The Business Case for Diversity Management

April, K. (2002) The Business Case for Diversity Management, 1st Convergence Summit on Achieving Global Competitiveness, Sandton, 9 - 10 October

The Growth of Knowledge Management in Treasury Management

April, K. (2002) The Growth of Knowledge Management in Treasury Management, Best Practice Treasury Management Conference, Excellante International, Sandton, 24 - 25 April

Technology and the Management of Knowledge

April, K. (2001) Technology and the Management of Knowledge, Nebula Solutions Client Seminar, Cape Technikon Hotel School, Greenpoint, 22nd August

Adding Value Through People

April, K. (2001) Adding Value Through People, Sabinet Online Client Seminar, Cathedral Peak, Kwazulu Natal, SA, 29 - 31 August

Knowledge Management & Complexity

April, K. (2001) Knowledge Management & Complexity, UCT GSB’s Chaos & Complexity Conference, GSB, Breakwater Campus, 17 - 18 August

Women in Post Graduate Management Programmes: Building Workplace Norms' and 'Knowledge Management – Success Factors for Multinational Corporations in an Emerging Economy'

April, K. (2001) Women in Post Graduate Management Programmes: Building Workplace Norms' and 'Knowledge Management – Success Factors for Multinational Corporations in an Emerging Economy', Management Theory at Work Conference, University of Lancaster, UK, 24 - 26, September

Toward an Understanding of Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management: A Case Study of Structuration and Sense-making in British Petroleum’s Knowledge Management Team

April, K. & Gorelick, C. (2001) Toward an Understanding of Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management: A Case Study of Structuration and Sense-making in British Petroleum’s Knowledge Management Team, 4th International Organisational Learning and Knowledge Management Conference, Richard Ivy School of Business, University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, 1 - 5 June

Guidelines for Developing a Knowledge Management Strategy for Sustainable Business Benefit: A Resource-Based Perspective

April, K. (2001) Guidelines for Developing a Knowledge Management Strategy for Sustainable Business Benefit: A Resource-Based Perspective, Conference for Achieving and Measuring Business Benefit from Knowledge Management, UNICOM, London, UK, 15 - 17 May

E-Business: Technological or Strategic Issue?

April, K. (2001) E-Business: Technological or Strategic Issue?, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 84 - 89, July

The Fittest Runner Wins The Race: Acquiring the Agility to Change

April, K. (2001) The Fittest Runner Wins The Race: Acquiring the Agility to Change, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 153, October

The Wisdom of being a Fast-Follower

April, K. & Cradock, J. (2001) The Wisdom of being a Fast-Follower, Intelligence: Business, 2.0, pp. 76 - 80, April

Women in Higher Education

April, K. (2001) Women in Higher Education, International Management Theory at Work Conference, Lancaster University, September

E-business Strategy Development Framework for Multinationals

April, A. (2001) E-business Strategy Development Framework for Multinationals, E-Shell conference on E-business, Shell International, London

Guidelines for Management Education in South Africa: The Graduate School of Business of the University of Cape Town.

April, K. (2001) Guidelines for Management Education in South Africa: The Graduate School of Business of the University of Cape Town, International Conference of Connected Learning and Management Critique, Cambridge University, UK

Guidelines for Management Education in South Africa

April, K. (2000) Guidelines for Management Education in South Africa, 2nd International Lancaster-Cambridge Conference: Emergent Fields in Management Connecting Learning and Critique, Lancaster University, 19 - 21 July, pp. 1 - 24

Knowledge Management in Multinational Corporations Within South Africa

April, K. (2000) Knowledge Management in Multinational Corporations Within South Africa, International Management Theory at Work Conference, Lancaster University, September

The Knowledge Management Handbook

April, K. (2000) The Knowledge Management Handbook, Halfway House, Guateng, Kagiso

e or b e@ten: E-Business Redefining the Corporate Landscape in South Africa

April, K. & Cradock, J. (2000) e or b e@ten: E-Business Redefining the Corporate Landscape in South Africa, Durban, Butterworth Publishers

Rethinking Leadership

April, K., Macdonald, R. & Vriesendorp, S. (2000) Rethinking Leadership, Kenwyn, Cape Town, University of Cape Town Press

From Divide and Control to Collaboration and Understanding

April, K. (2000) From Divide and Control to Collaboration and Understanding, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 143, July

Digital Marketplaces Can transform Buy-Side E-Commerce in SA

April, K. (2000) Digital Marketplaces Can transform Buy-Side E-Commerce in SA, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 129, December

A Stitch in E-Time: South Africa Trails the World

April, K. (2000) A Stitch in E-Time: South Africa Trails the World, Journal for Convergence, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 113, December

The Uncertainty and Ambiguity of Leadership in the 21st Century

April, K. and Hill, S. (2000) The Uncertainty and Ambiguity of Leadership in the 21st Century, South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 45 - 52

The New Leadership Lens of Love and Energy

April, K. (1999) The New Leadership Lens of Love and Energy, People Dynamics, Volume 16, Number 9, pp. 34 - 38, September

Leading through Communication, Conversation and Dialogue

April, K. (1999) Leading through Communication, Conversation and Dialogue, The Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, Volume 20, Number 5, pp. 231 - 241

New Science and Leadership: The Shift in Thinking

April, K. and Macdonald, R. (1998) New Science and Leadership: The Shift in Thinking, People Dynamics, Volume 17, Number 6, pp. 15 - 18, June

New Science Implications for South African Leaders

April, K. & Macdonald, R. (1998) New Science Implications for South African Leaders, People Dynamics, Volume 16, Isssue 9, pp. 25 - 30, September

Leading through Communication

April, K. (1998) Leading through Communication, People Dynamics, Volume 16, Number 11, pp. 74 - 85, December

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): A Technology Focus and Forecast

April, K. (1997) Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL): A Technology Focus and Forecast, Elektron: Journal of the SA Institute of Electrical Engineers, pp. 23 - 26 (this paper won the SA Telecommunications Award for ‘Best Research Article for 1997’ in its category). May

Calibration using an Instrumentation Amplifier

April, K. (1995) Calibration using an Instrumentation Amplifier, Elektron: Journal of the SA Institute of Electrical Engineers, pp. 54 - 55, June

A Cost-Effective, Accurate and Versatile PC-Interface Card

April, K. (1995) A Cost-Effective, Accurate and Versatile PC-Interface Card, Elektron: Journal of the SA Institute of Electrical Engineers, pp. 5 - 7 (This paper won the ‘Best Research Article for 1995 Award’). October